It is really important to understand that one of the fundamentals of the preamble
(the second one in fact) of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961, states:
...recognising that the medical use of narcotic drugs continues to be indispensable
for the relief of pain and suffering and that adequate provision must be made
to ensure the availability of narcotic drugs for such purposes...
This has recently been reaffirmed by the
United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs
Ensuring availability of controlled medications
for the relief of pain and preventing diversion and abuse.
Striking the right balance to achieve the optimal public health outcome.
The Single Convention establishes a system of controls in respect to the cultivation of opium poppies and cannabis. In accordance with Articles 23 and 28, parties are required to establish a centralised Government agency to carry out functions in relation to the cultivation of opium poppies and cannabis, and only cultivators licensed by this agency may be authorised to engage in cultivation.
International Narcotics Control Board Report 2013 - Chapter IV.
Recommendations to Governments, the United Nations and other relevant international and regional organizations
701. Medical cannabis programmes should be subject to the control measures for cannabis cultivation,
trade and distribution set forth in articles 23, 28 and 30 of the 1961 Convention.
World Cancer Day - International Narcotics Control Board reiterates the right to access
internationally controlled narcotic drugs for the relief of pain and suffering
“All people have the right to access internationally controlled narcotic drugs for the relief of pain and suffering”
said Mr Yans (President International Narcotics Control Board)....3 February 2014
The Common Law and Doctrine of Informed Consent
Justice Robbins also stated:
“The right to determine what shall be done with one's own body is a fundamental right in our society. The concepts inherent in this right are the bedrock upon which the principles of self determination and individual autonomy are based. Free individual choice in matters affecting this right should, in my opinion, be accorded very high priority.”
In England, in Re T (Adult: Refusal of medical treatment) the House of Lords has made it plain that the right to refuse medical treatment extends even to the point where refusal will result in the likely or certain death of the patient. Lord Donaldson acknowledged that there is an: “absolute right to choose whether to consent to medical treatment, to refuse it or to choose one rather than another of the treatments being offered ... notwithstanding that the reasons for making the choice are irrational, unknown or even non- existent.”
Lord Donaldson also said:
“This situation gives rise to a conflict between two interests, that of the patient and that of the society in which he lives. The patient's interest consists of his right to self-determination - his right to live his own life how he wishes, even if it will damage his health or lead to his premature death. Society's interest is in upholding the concept that all human life is sacred and that it should be preserved if at all possible. It is well established that in the ultimate the right of the individual is paramount.”
In Australia, the same doctrine has been affirmed by superior courts. In F against R10 the Supreme Court of South Australia considered a surgeon's duty to inform the patient of the risk that an operation will not succeed in its aim.
Chief Justice King stated:
“The governing consideration is the right of every human being to make the decisions which affect his own life and welfare and to determine the risks which he is willing to undertake."
In 1988 after a two-year hearing to reschedule cannabis
U.S. DEA Chief Administrative Law Judge, Francis L. Young, said:
"Nearly all medicines have toxic, potentially lethal effects. But marijuana is not such a substance. There is no record in the extensive medical literature describing a proven, documented cannabis-induced fatality ... Simply stated, researchers have been unable to give animals enough marijuana to induce death ... In practical terms, marijuana cannot induce a lethal response as a result of drug-related toxicity ... In strict medical terms marijuana is far safer than many foods we commonly consume. For example, eating 10 raw potatoes can result in a toxic response. By comparison, its physically impossible to eat enough marijuana to induce death ... Marijuana, in its natural form, is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man. By any measure of rational analysis marijuana can be safely used within the supervised routine of medical care ... Marijuana has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States for spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis and other causes ... It would be unreasonable, arbitrary and capricious for DEA to continue to stand between those sufferers and the benefits of this substance."
The Human Rights Case for Drug Reform
How Drug Criminalization Destroys Lives, Feeds Abuses, and Subverts the Rule of Law
Pain Management: A Fundamental Human Right
We conclude that, because pain management is the subject of many initiatives within the disciplines of medicine, ethics and law, we are at an “inflection point” in which unreasonable failure to treat pain is viewed worldwide as poor medicine, unethical practice, and an abrogation of a fundamental human right.
Cannabis as an Adjunct to or Substitute for Opiates in the Treatment of Chronic Pain
Community-based dispensaries have emerged as a disjointed but effective social movement focused on the
principles of harm reduction and human rights. Although they remain largely unregulated or even illegal in much
of Canada and U.S., these dispensaries have been successful in establishing a safe and consistent supply of
medical cannabis, advocating for patient rights, and adding to society's knowledge and understanding of the therapeutic potential of cannabis through scientific research.
Additionally, evidence suggests that they are reducing the problematic use of opiates, alcohol and other substances in their communities. If we are to ever benefit from drug policies based on science, reason and compassion, national governments will need to abandon the misinformation that underscores drug prohibition, and to start promoting and supporting research into cannabis and cannabinoids as both a relatively safe and effective medicine in the treatment of chronic pain and other serious medical conditions, and as a potential “exit drug” for problematic substance use.
Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs
40% have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects
(65%), better symptom management (57%), and less withdrawal potential (34%) with cannabis.
Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Prevents Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity
Our results indicate that D9-THC reduces Methamphetamine-induced brain damage via inhibition of nNOS expression and astrocyte activation through CB1-dependent and independent mechanisms, respectively.
Cannabinoids In Health
In 1988 the first cannabinoid receptor was discovered and since then researchers have learned that there are two different types of cannabinoid receptors which are distributed throughout our bodies and that we make chemicals within our bodies endocannabinoids which are similar to the cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. Both plant and human cannabinoids bind to and influence these receptors in order to discourage the rise and progression of numerous disease processes.
Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) - CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain, to be specific in the basal ganglia and in the limbic system, including the hippocampus. They are also found in the cerebellum and in both male and female reproductive systems. CB1 receptors are absent in the medulla oblongata, the part of the brain stem responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Thus, there is not the risk of respiratory or cardiovascular failure that can be produced by some drugs. CB1 receptors appear to be responsible for the euphoric and anticonvulsive effects of cannabis.
Cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2) - CB2 receptors are predominantly found in the immune system, or immune-derived cells with the greatest density in the spleen. While found only in the peripheral nervous system, a report does indicate that CB2 is expressed by a subpopulation of microglia in the human cerebellum. CB2 receptors appear to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and possibly other therapeutic effects of cannabis.
The cannabinoid system is a major neurochemical system whose functional significance has only recently been explored. We are witnessing the beginning of a revolution in cannabinoid research.
The endogenous opioid system and the endocannabinoid system are co-localised in pain-processing regions and opioids and cannabinoids exert a synergistic antinociceptive effect. The ability of cannabinoids to induce antinociception in virtually every animal model of acute or persistent pain evaluated has encouraged researchers to try to better understand this important non-opioid system of analgesia.
There are currently around 80 known/discovered types of cannabinoids. In 2005 research from the University of Mississippi, USA showed cannabis contains 489 identifiable chemical compounds known to exist in the cannabis plant. At least 200 of these are cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids which are found in a wide range of concentrations within the flower, leaf, and stem, and which are the basis for medical and scientific use of cannabis. The cannabinoids can serve as appetite stimulants, antiemetics, antispasmodics, and have some analgesic effects.
At least 1 in 5 Australians, that's including children, live with chronic pain. Among people aged over 65, it's 1 in 3. Research shows that chronic pain left untreated leads to devastating effects on the welfare of people's lives, and the longer this goes on untreated the worse it gets. The National Pain Strategy, developed by more than 150 healthcare professionals and consumers at a 2010 national summit, recommended chronic pain be recognised as a priority health issue and constitute a disease in its own right. Yet it remains one of the most neglected areas of healthcare.
Rare disease affects more than 2 million Australians and are defined as a condition, syndrome or disorder that affects 1 in 10,000 people or less and are either life-threatening or chronically debilitating. Many are alone in their plight to tackle and come to terms with an incredibly unique, debilitating and life-threatening illness.
WE'RE HERE TO HELP
Mullaways Medical Cannabis an Australian Medical Cannabis Company has developed a natural low dose cannabinoid-derived medicine for the treatment of chronic pain which is involved in a range of conditions including endocannabinoid imbalance, cancer treatment, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, terminal illnesses and Crohn's disease. Mullaways Medical Cannabis has cross-bred different types of the plant to produce new strains that could be used to develop cannabinoid medicines to treat a wide range of disorders.
The first of these 'Super breeds' of medicinal cannabinoids developed in Australia, called the Cleverman will be registered with IP Australia who administer Plant Breeder's Rights.
Research Leader and Director Anthony David Bower said, "It has been demonstrated that there are something like 80 cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, and to date only a small number have been looked at in any detail."
Mullaways Medical Cannabis proposes to research and develop other cannabinoid based medicines including patches, creams, oils and edibles that have therapeutic benefits and that may be delivered more safely and effectively than by smoking cannabis.
The company also proposes to conduct research into the different methods of growing the cannabis plant and conduct research into the basic chemistry and pharmacology of cannabinoids with the aim of developing cannabinoid based medicines of an acceptable standard that may be delivered more safely and effectively than by smoking cannabis.
Complete Interview of "Calls for medicinal marijuana"
“It is clear that in the case of Mr Bower road blocks have been thrown up that would not have been there if he had been a multinational pharmaceutical company or the primary seedstock were not related to a recreational drug," Greens MP John Kaye said.
The Greens' John Kaye Talks Medicinal Cannabis
The objective is to get a motion through the Upper House that calls on Minister for Health Jillian Skinner to conduct a trial of the therapeutic and palliative benefits of medicinal cannabis. The Minister has the legislative power to conduct a trial. Given that this was a recommendation at the 1999 Drug Summit, we think a motion is enough to push the Minister over the line and do what should have happened 13 years ago.
The Greens' John Kaye Stands up for Medicinal Cannabis Users
The Committee also supported the much less controversial use of pharmaceutical cannabis in pill, tincture or spray form as a prescription drug.
Patients who suffer from multiple sclerosis and chronic pain where other treatments have failed are likely to benefit from the new pharmaceuticals that could be developed from cannabis products.
Cannabis Manufacturing Plant
Preliminary Design Work has been completed for the Kempsey manufacturing plant, designed to process 1 metric tonne of cannabis a week into Tincture. Mullaways Medical Cannabis has had a number of meetings with representatives from WILEY & CO PTY LTD concerning the construction of the manufacturing plant. WILEY & CO PTY LTD
Safe THC/Cannabinoid Medicines
The Tincture from Mullaways Medical Cannabis has been tested by both the NSW Police and NSW Health and no Prohibited Drugs were detected.
The Research by Mullaways Medical Cannabis has already led to groundbreaking Science in the field of Medical Cannabis and results of this Cannabinoid Research will soon be Published. The Research opens the way for effective Medical Cannabinoid Dosage. Based on safe levels of Cannabinoid/THCA/THC consumption Mullaway's has developed easy to use Tables showing the SAFE allowable use of THCA/THC.
This is a major breakthrough for Research into Cannabinoid Treatments. SAFE Cannabinoid Treatment Plans (for Cancer Patients for example) can now be worked out to help with the disease or symptoms. Tolerance levels can be adjusted so the Psychotropic Effect is not over whelming but manageable or pleasurable.
This Research has removed the demon from the Psychotropic Effect and shows that it is a most valuable Medical Tool. The Research highlights the Psychotropic Effect is very much a pleasurable experience under most circumstances and even if large doses of Cannabinoids are required for a particular Treatment this can be easily managed.
The Research by Mullaways Medical Cannabis has made it possible for the first time to; Design, Cultivate, Trial and Evaluate Cannabinoid Treatments using SAFE Doses of Cannabinoids/THCA/THC. While the rest of the Medical Cannabis Research world tries to genetically engineer Cannabis without any THC or tries to produce a rich Blend of Cannabinoids/THC from low THC Cannabis Mullaway's Research has already produced the Jewel in the Crown of Medical Cannabis Research.
containing 9% Resin
composed of 91% Cannabinoids
& 9% Total THC (95% THCA & 5% THC)
The Resin recovered from the CLEVERMAN variety is recovered as THCA, Non-Psychotropic. This can then be used to produce a Tincture with the required Properties to restore health and enough Psychotropic Response to assist with the relief of chronic pain.
The Recovered Resin can be used to make the following range of Medical Cannabis Products;Non-Psychotropic Tincture with 70% THCA & 30% THC.
Non-Psychotropic Tincture with Extra Pain Killing Properities
(Sufficient THCA is converted to THC, until the Tincture brings relief)
Psychotropic Tincture is made from 100% THC, which had been converted from THCA prior to the Tincture making Process or which is converted during the process.
Mixture of THCA & THC
Range of Cannabinoids making up 91% of the Resin
Patches containing any combination of the above products.
High Protein Food Products made using any of the above products.
Essential Oils for Aromatherapy, Meditation & Massage Oils.
Creams containing any combination of the above products.
SAFE Medical Cannabis Products can now be designed, with Cannabis cultivated to produce the required mixture of Cannabinoids for the Treatment.
Hemp Foods and THC Levels:
A Scientific Assessment
by Franjo Grotenhermen, M.D., Michael Karus, and Daike Lohmeyer
3.3 Influence of physical factors on THC content
Ninety-five precent of the THC present in the Cannabis plant is found in a pharmacologically inactive form, i.e. one of two delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acids (THCA) (Turner 1980), while the majority of biological effects are caused by the corresponding neutral phenolic forms of THC (Dewey 1986)......
Baker et al. (1981) analyzed 64 marijuana samples (Cannabis herb) and 26 hashish samples (Cannabis resin) for their relative amounts of THCA and THC, and found a wide range of ratios, especially in marijuana. In Cannabis resin, the ratio ranged between 0.5 to 1 and 6.1 to 1.
4 THC thresholds for psychotropic effects
Some experimental and clinical studies report experiences with threshold values for psychotropic THC doses. Acute effects below the psychotropic threshold cannot be distinguished from placebo effects.
...... A single dose of 5 mg THC can be regarded as a placebo dose. In various clinical studies, psychotropic reactions were also observed following single doses of 5 mg THC. However, these cannot be distinguished from effects that occur after administration of placebos. As the duration of action of THC in therapeutic dosage ranges between 4 and 12 hours, a daily intake of 2 x 5 mg which equals 10 mg THC, administered orally in a lipophilic carrier, will not have any effects that could be distinguished from placebo effects.
Cannabis Treatment Plan Design
A general overview of how to Design
a Cannabis Treatment Plan for a patient.
Comparison Of Scientific Standards, Sativex Spray
& Mullaways Medical Cannabis Pty Ltd's Tincture.
Mullaways Medical Cannabis has outlined the Basic Guidelines necessary
to implement a sensible Medical Cannabis Program in NSW & Australia.
Medical Cannabis Survey 2010
Mullaways Medical Cannabis has surveyed users of its Tinctures products
and recorded this information so that it can be published at the appropriate time.
Survey of Australians using cannabis
for medical purposes 2005
Data were available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical cannabis use was frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain (57%), depression (56%), arthritis (35%), persistent nausea (27%) and weight loss (26%). Cannabis was perceived to provide "great relief" overall (86%), and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia. It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided.
However, nearly one half (41%) experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest (89%) in participating in a clinical trial of medical cannabis, and strong support (79%) for investigating alternative delivery methods.
Australian medical cannabis users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical cannabis users show strong interest in clinical cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods.
Cannabis and Mental Health: Put into context
Department of Health and Ageing
Thus far, there is little indication of increases in the incidence of mental health problems that are attributable to cannabis use. This may reflect the fact that only frequent, heavy cannabis use has been strongly linked to such problems. The prevalence of at least yearly cannabis use in Australia has been stable for the past twenty years with minimal changes in the incidence of mental health problems. Similarly, the considerable increase of cannabis use in the previous thirty years was not accompanied by a corresponding increase in mental illness. As with other drugs like alcohol, most cannabis users do not seem to experience serious or enduring problems from the drug. That a small proportion of users do progress to problem use is clear, but the reasons for this, and therefore the ability to identify such persons and minimise the harm they suffer, is not apparent. How to acquire that ability is the present challenge.
Marijuana Does Not Cause Schizophrenia, Harvard Study Finds
In summary, we conclude that cannabis does not cause psychosis by itself. In genetically vulnerable individuals, while cannabis may modify the illness onset, severity and outcome, there is no evidence from this study that it can cause the psychosis.
Genetic predisposition to schizophrenia associated with increased use of cannabis
Our results show that to some extent the association between cannabis and schizophrenia is due to a shared genetic aetiology across common variants. They suggest that individuals with an increased genetic predisposition to schizophrenia are both more likely to use cannabis and to use it in greater quantities.
The Neural Correlates of Mental Rotation Abilities
in Cannabis-Abusing Patients with Schizophrenia
Together with the literature on cognition, the results of the current fMRI study provide preliminary evidence that some cognitive-related neurophysiologic processes are partially spared in cannabis-smoking schizophrenia patients.
Mitoepigenetics and drug addiction
We strongly believe that mitochondria, as an integral part of cell biology, may play an important role in the modification of epigenetic interactions between the nucleus and drugs of abuse as well as participate in the long-lasting neuroadaptations occurring in the addiction process. Further investigations are needed to determine the potential role of mitochondrial epigenetic alterations in the initiation and maintenance of drug addiction.
Essential fatty acids and mental health
There is good evidence that psychiatric illness is associated with
depletion of essential fatty acids
and, crucially, that supplementation can result in clinical amelioration.
Omega 3 Fatty Acids: An Adjunct for Schizophrenia
Increasing Homicide Rates and Linoleic Acid Consumption
Among Five Western Countries, 1961–2000
Low linoleate diets may prevent behavioral maladies that correctional institutions,
social service programs, and mental health providers intend to treat.
Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium in the general population.
Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder is a severe mental disorder with poor outcome.
Hospital separations for cannabis- and methamphetamine-related psychotic episodes in Australia
There have been notable increases in hospital separations due to drug-induced psychosis,
which appear to have been driven by amphetamine-related rather than cannabis-related episodes.
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders in a Cohort of Sexually Abused Children
......this study controlled for many more potential confounding factors, which have been previously identified as risk factors for psychosis than other studies. Furthermore, a recent review of these studies suggested that although there may be an association between cannabis use and psychosis, there is not enough evidence to suggest that cannabis is a necessary cause for psychosis, given that within the studies reviewed not all adults with schizophrenia used cannabis in adolescence. Moreover, the authors suggested that cannabis is not a sufficient cause for psychosis, given that the majority of adolescent cannabis users do not go on to develop schizophrenia in adulthood.
Childhood Sexual Abuse, Early Cannabis Use, and Psychosis:
Testing an Interaction Model Based on the National Comorbidity Survey
With regard to Childhood Sexual Abuse and its association with psychosis, research has consistently found high rates of sexual abuse in childhood within psychotic populations. In fact, a number of studies have provided important evidence in support of a causal relationship between child abuse and psychosis; however, no main effect was found within this sample. One explanation of this may be that incidents of Childhood Sexual Abuse have been underreported because, although general population data was used in this study, evidence suggests that psychiatric patients underreport rather than overreport abuse......
Childhood trauma and psychosis: An overview of the evidence and directions for clinical interventions
Treating the aftermath of childhood trauma in people with psychosis has received relatively little research attention to date. This is despite the fact that people with childhood trauma and psychosis have worse treatment outcomes than their non-traumatised counterparts. For example, people with psychosis and a history of trauma have more severe depression, anxiety, suicidality and substance abuse. They are less involved in, or adherent to, their treatment and make less progress in vocational programs . Childhood trauma also leads to PTSD symptoms in those with psychosis.
Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders
Is there a role for the endocannabinoid system in the etiology
and treatment of melancholic depression?
Endocannabinoid-mediated modulation of stress responses:
Physiological and pathophysiological significance
The endocannabinoid system has emerged as one of the most important facilitators of stress adaptation in the body. We have seen how it responds to stress in a way which enables HPA axis responses to be restrained. At the behavioural level, despite complexities associated with some of the tools and animal models used to study the system and its effects, the picture is largely one of a system that serves to facilitate habituation to stress, reduce innate anxiety responses, promote extinction of conditioned fear responding, reduce behavioural despair or anhedonia and mediate analgesic responses to unconditioned and conditioned stress. In other words, the endocannabinoid system promotes activities and responses which are beneficial for our survival in the face of challenges to homeostasis. Resilience to stress-related disease and dysfunction may depend, at least in part, on the physiological integrity and proper functioning of the endocannabinoid system.
Decreased Depression in Marijuana Users
Those who consume marijuana occasionally or even daily have lower levels of depressive symptoms than those who have never tried marijuana. Specifically, weekly users had less depressed mood, more positive affect, and fewer somatic complaints than non-users. Daily users reported less depressed mood and more positive affect than non-users. The groups did not differ on interpersonal symptoms. Our results add to the growing body of literature on depression and marijuana and are generally consistent with a number of studies that have failed to confirm a relationship between the two after controlling for relevant variables.
It is the Quality of the Cannabis
not the Strength that is the major concern.
Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study
In conclusion, our meta-analysis of studies that have attempted to address the question of longer term neurocognitive disturbance in moderate and heavy cannabis users has failed to demonstrate a substantial, systematic, and detrimental effect of cannabis use on neuropsychological performance. It was surprising to find such few and small effects given that most of the potential biases inherent in our analyses actually increased the likelihood of finding a cannabis effect..........Nevertheless, when considering all 15 studies (i.e., those that met both strict and more relaxed criteria) we only noted that regular cannabis users performed worse on memory tests, but that the magnitude of the effect was very small. The small magnitude of effect sizes from observations of chronic users of cannabis suggests that cannabis compounds, if found to have therapeutic value, should have a good margin of safety from a neurocognitive standpoint under the more limited conditions of exposure that would likely obtain in a medical setting.
How much THCA or THC is required to produce Pain Relief?
Low-Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain
Vaporisation is an effective way to deliver the therapeutic components of Cannabis (Cannabinoids) without the toxic by products of combustion. The cannabis material is placed in the vaporisor and heated to a temperature of 170-200°C, just short of combustion which occurs at 230°C. This causes the essential oils to volatilise, or evaporate, into a pure vapor, which is then collected and inhaled. The resulting vapors contain no tars, hydrocarbons, benzene, carbon monoxide or other toxic pryolytic gases and by products of combustion. Respiratory risks associated with smoked Cannabis are eliminated.
Vaporization as a Smokeless Cannabis Delivery System: A Pilot Study
Eighteen healthy inpatient subjects enrolled to compare the delivery of cannabinoids by vaporization to marijuana smoked in a standard cigarette. One strength (1.7, 3.4, or 6.8% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) and delivery system was randomly assigned for each of the 6 study days. Plasma concentrations of D-9-THC, expired carbon monoxide (CO), physiologic and neuropsychologic effects were the main outcome measures. Peak plasma concentrations and 6-h area under the plasma concentration–time curve of THC were similar. CO levels were reduced with vaporization. No adverse events occurred. Vaporization of cannabis is a safe and effective mode of delivery of THC. Further trials of clinical effectiveness of cannabis could utilize vaporization as a smokeless delivery system.